1 1: Basic Definitions and Concepts Statistics LibreTexts

1 1: Basic Definitions and Concepts Statistics LibreTexts

EXAMPLE A survey that sampled 2,001 full-or part-time workers ages 50 to 70, conducted by the American Association of Retired Persons
(AARP), discovered that 70% of those polled planned to work past the traditional mid-60s retirement age. By using methods discussed
in Section 6.4, this statistic could be used to draw conclusions about the population of all workers ages 50 to 70. They are a type of observational study with their own special issues one should be aware of. Margins of error, confidence intervals, and confidence levels are often reported with opinion polls and survey results. Statistics is a collection of methods for collecting, displaying, analyzing, and drawing conclusions from data.

The AOC is responsible for the Judicial Branch’s statewide functions of audit, communications, facilities, fiscal, legal, human resources, information technology, and security. If you’re curious, analytical and interested in fighting cybercrime without necessarily working in law enforcement, a cybersecurity major may be right for you. However, if you’re still undecided on your career path in tech, a computer science or information systems major allows you to explore various domains and make an informed decision. If you’ve already earned undergraduate training in computer science, you can narrow your area of focus by earning a specialized master’s in cybersecurity. Cybersecurity is a vast field containing several subcategories and roles. Each subfield of cybersecurity tackles a specific aspect of information security, ranging from audits to incident response.

  1. Over the years, statistics have evolved and branched into several subfields.
  2. Most information security experts work full time, but remote and freelance options are also available for professionals in this field.
  3. Ordinal levels are often incorporated into nonparametric statistics and compared against the total variable group.
  4. Variability refers to a set of statistics that show how much difference there is among the elements of a sample or population along the characteristics measured.
  5. For example, the collection and interpretation of data about a nation like its economy and population, military, literacy, etc.
  6. Partly it means being able to properly evaluate the data and claims that bombard you every day.

An interval can be asymmetrical because it works as lower or upper bound for a parameter (left-sided interval or right sided interval), but it can also be asymmetrical because the two sided interval is built violating symmetry around the estimate. Sometimes the bounds for a confidence interval are reached asymptotically and these are used to approximate the true bounds. In a class, the collection of marks obtained by 50 students is the description of data.

Most information security experts work full time, but remote and freelance options are also available for professionals in this field. Cybersecurity involves the protection of networks, devices, programs and data from unauthorized access and modification. In simpler terms, cybersecurity measures protect digital assets from unauthorized users. Probabilities are calculated differently what are the branches of statistics based on a number of factors, including the types of events involved. Dependent events are events in which the outcome of an event is affected by the outcome of some other event. For example, given that a bag contains 3 blue marbles and 2 red marbles, if one of the marbles is removed from the bag, there is a 60% chance that the marble is blue and a 40% chance that the marble is red.


Probability and statistics are two branches of mathematics concerning the collection, analysis, interpretation, and display of data in the context of random events. First, qualitative variables are specific attributes that are often non-numeric. Other examples of qualitative variables in statistics are gender, eye color, or city of birth. Qualitative data is most often used to determine what percentage of an outcome occurs for any given qualitative variable. For example, trying to determine what percentage of women own a business analyzes qualitative data.

Ordinal levels are often incorporated into nonparametric statistics and compared against the total variable group. A variable is a data set that can be counted that marks a characteristic or attribute of an item. For example, a car can have variables such as make, model, year, mileage, color, or condition. By combining the variables across a set of data, such as the colors of all cars in a given parking lot, statistics allows us to better understand trends and outcomes. Inferential statistics are used to make generalizations about large groups, such as estimating average demand for a product by surveying a sample of consumers’ buying habits or attempting to predict future events.

Numerical descriptors include mean and standard deviation for continuous data (like income), while frequency and percentage are more useful in terms of describing categorical data (like education). In the real world, it is often not possible, or highly impractical to collect large amounts of data from populations of interest. Ideally, we would be able to acquire all the data we need for a population and make informed decisions based on the descriptive statistics they provide. Realistically, since this is rarely feasible, we instead make inferences about populations as a whole based on samples of said populations and the use of statistical methods; this is the goal of inferential statistics.

Another tabular summary, called a relative frequency distribution, shows the fraction, or percentage, of data values in each class. The most common tabular summary of data for two variables is a cross tabulation, a two-variable analogue of a frequency distribution. Most predictions of the future and generalizations about a population by studying a smaller sample come under the purview of inferential statistics. Most social sciences experiments deal with studying a small sample population that helps determine how the population in general behaves.

Data Structures and Algorithms

She completed her master’s in English at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa. Before coming to Forbes Advisor she worked on education related content at HigherEducation.com and Red Ventures as both a copy editor and content manager. A strong cybersecurity professional https://1investing.in/ is grounded in a wide array of technical skills such as network security control, scripting, intrusion detection and ethical hacking. Bootcamps are specialized, intensive training programs that equip learners with job-ready skills in a short timeframe.

Even though this appears like a science, there are ways in which one can manipulate studies and results through various means. For example, data dredging is increasingly becoming a problem as computers hold loads of information and it is easy, either intentionally or unintentionally, to use the wrong inferential methods. Every student of statistics should know about the different branches of statistics to correctly understand statistics from a more holistic point of view. Often, the kind of job or work one is involved in hides the other aspects of statistics, but it is very important to know the overall idea behind statistical analysis to fully appreciate its importance and beauty.

Cybersecurity Degree Guide: Degree Types, Specializations And Career Paths

Statistics inmathematics is defined as the branch of science that deals with the number and is used to take find meaniful information of the data. Regression Analysis model of the statistics is used to determine the relation between the variables. It gives the relation between the dependent variable and the independent variable. Referring to statistical significance does not necessarily mean that the overall result is significant in real world terms. For example, in a large study of a drug it may be shown that the drug has a statistically significant but very small beneficial effect, such that the drug is unlikely to help the patient noticeably. Between two estimators of a given parameter, the one with lower mean squared error is said to be more efficient.

Classifying Data

Interval measurements have meaningful distances between measurements defined, but the zero value is arbitrary (as in the case with longitude and temperature measurements in Celsius or Fahrenheit), and permit any linear transformation. Ratio measurements have both a meaningful zero value and the distances between different measurements defined, and permit any rescaling transformation. You don’t necessarily need a traditional college education to get into cybersecurity. If you’re a seasoned professional looking to switch careers, or if you’re not in a place to invest the time and money required to earn a full-time degree, you might consider a cybersecurity bootcamp instead.

Associate Degree in Cybersecurity

Probability is used in mathematical statistics to study the sampling distributions of sample statistics and, more generally, the properties of statistical procedures. The use of any statistical method is valid when the system or population under consideration satisfies the assumptions of the method. The difference in point of view between classic probability theory and sampling theory is, roughly, that probability theory starts from the given parameters of a total population to deduce probabilities that pertain to samples. Statistical inference, however, moves in the opposite direction—inductively inferring from samples to the parameters of a larger or total population. Using descriptive statistics, inference statistics frequently talk in terms of probability. Furthermore, a statistician uses these techniques mainly for data analysis, writing, and drawing conclusions from the limited data.

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